US Patent 7,236,566 (2007) An x-ray diffraction technique for measuring a known characteristic of a sample of a material in an in-situ state. The technique includes using an x-ray source for emitting substantially divergent x-ray radiation – with a collimating optic disposed with respect to the fixed source for producing a substantially parallel beam of x-ray radiation by receiving and redirecting the divergent paths of the divergent x-ray radiation. A first x-ray detector collects radiation diffracted from the sample; wherein the source and detector are fixed, during operation thereof, in position relative to each other and in at least one dimension relative to the sample according to a priori knowledge about the known characteristic of the sample. A second x-ray detector may be fixed relative to the first x-ray detector according to the a priori knowledge about the known characteristic of the sample, especially in a phase monitoring embodiment of the present invention.
US Patent 7,711,088 (2010) An x-ray diffraction measurement apparatus for measuring a sample, having an x-ray source and detector coupled together in a combination for coordinated rotation around the sample, such that x-ray diffraction data can be taken at multiple phi angles. The apparatus may provide a pole figure representation of crystal orientation of the sample, wherein the pole figure represents the crystal alignment, and a full width half maximum value is calculated from the pole figure for crystal alignment quantification. Data may be taken at discrete positions along a length of the sample, and the sample is in a fixed position during measuring; or data may be taken continuously along a length of the article, as the sample continuously moves along its length in a movement path between the source and detector. The sample may be in the form of a tape, linearly passing through a measurement zone.
US Patent 8,130,908 (2012) An X-ray diffraction apparatus for measuring crystal orientation of a multiple grain sample. An X-ray excitation path is provided having a focusing optic for collecting x-rays from an x-ray source and redirecting the collected x-rays into an x-ray beam converging on a single grain of the multiple grain sample. At least one point detector and the sample are rotated relative to each other; and a grain orientation is obtained based upon diffraction patterns collected from first and second grain crystal planes within the apparatus.
US Patent 8,647,705 (2014) A method for forming a superconductive article is disclosed. According to one method, a substrate is provided, the substrate having an aspect ratio of not less than about 1×103, forming a buffer layer overlying the substrate, forming a superconductor layer overlying the buffer layer, and characterizing at least one of the substrate, the buffer layer and the superconductor layer by x-ray diffraction. In this regard, x-ray diffraction is carried out such that data are taken at multiple phi angles. Data acquisition at multiple phi angles permits robust characterization of the film or layer subject to characterization, and such data may be utilized for process control and/or quality control. Additional methods for forming superconductive articles, and for characterizing the same with XRD are also disclosed.